Solid Biss Key Software 18 PORTABLE
In this paper, we develop sixth-order wave aberration theory of ultrawide-angle optical systems like fisheye lenses. Based on the concept and approach to develop wave aberration theory of plane-symmetric optical systems, we first derive the sixth-order intrinsic wave aberrations and the fifth-order ray aberrations; second, we present a method to calculate the pupil aberration of such kind of optical systems to develop the extrinsic aberrations; third, the relation of aperture-ray coordinates between adjacent optical surfaces is fitted with the second-order polynomial to improve the calculation accuracy of the wave aberrations of a fisheye lens with a large acceptance aperture. Finally, the resultant aberration expressions are applied to calculate the aberrations of two design examples of fisheye lenses; the calculation results are compared with the ray-tracing ones with Zemax software to validate the aberration expressions.
solid biss key software 18
Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.
Purpose The significance of ocular or corneal aberrations may be subject to misinterpretation whenever eyes with different pupil sizes or the application of different Zernike expansion orders are compared. A method is shown that uses simple mathematical interpolation techniques based on normal data to rapidly determine the clinical significance of aberrations, without concern for pupil and expansion order. Methods Corneal topography (Tomey, Inc.; Nagoya, Japan) from 30 normal corneas was collected and the corneal wavefront error analyzed by Zernike polynomial decomposition into specific aberration types for pupil diameters of 3, 5, 7, and 10 mm and Zernike expansion orders of 6, 8, 10 and 12. Using this 44 matrix of pupil sizes and fitting orders, best-fitting 3-dimensional functions were determined for the mean and standard deviation of the RMS error for specific aberrations. The functions were encoded into software to determine the significance of data acquired from non-normal cases. Results The best-fitting functions for 6 types of aberrations were determined: defocus, astigmatism, prism, coma, spherical aberration, and all higher-order aberrations. A clinical screening method of color-coding the significance of aberrations in normal, postoperative LASIK, and keratoconus cases having different pupil sizes and different expansion orders is demonstrated. Conclusions A method to calibrate wavefront aberrometry devices by using a standard sample of normal cases was devised. This method could be potentially useful in clinical studies involving patients with uncontrolled pupil sizes or in studies that compare data from aberrometers that use different Zernike fitting-order algorithms. PMID:22157570
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently occurring cancers in Japan, and thus a wide range of methods have been deployed to study the molecular mechanisms of CRC. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of CRC, incorporating copy number aberration (CRC) and gene expression data. For the last four years, we have been collecting data from CRC cases and organizing the information as an "omics" study by integrating many kinds of analysis into a single comprehensive investigation. In our previous studies, we had experienced difficulty in finding genes related to CRC, as we observed higher noise levels in the expression data than in the data for other cancers. Because chromosomal aberrations are often observed in CRC, here, we have performed a combination of CNA analysis and expression analysis in order to identify some new genes responsible for CRC. This study was performed as part of the Clinical Omics Database Project at Tokyo Medical and Dental University. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of genetic instability in CRC by this combination of expression analysis and CNA, and to establish a new method for the diagnosis and treatment of CRC. Comprehensive gene expression analysis was performed on 79 CRC cases using an Affymetrix Gene Chip, and comprehensive CNA analysis was performed using an Affymetrix DNA Sty array. To avoid the contamination of cancer tissue with normal cells, laser micro-dissection was performed before DNA/RNA extraction. Data analysis was performed using original software written in the R language. We observed a high percentage of CNA in colorectal cancer, including copy number gains at 7, 8q, 13 and 20q, and copy number losses at 8p, 17p and 18. Gene expression analysis provided many candidates for CRC-related genes, but their association with CRC did not reach the level of statistical significance. The combination of CNA and gene expression analysis, together with the clinical information
Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease involving oral mucosa. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) as the signature cytokine of T helper 22 cells is increasingly recognized as a key regulator in various autoimmune diseases. Our previous study reported that IL-22 immunoexpression in OLP was significantly increased compared with the normal controls. The objective of this preliminary study was to compare the IL-22 expression levels in oral biopsies from patients with OLP (n = 50) against normal oral mucosa (n = 19) using RT-qPCR and Western blot, identify the potential targeting miRNAs of IL-22, and examine the miRNA expression levels in OLP. Interleukin-22 expression level in OLP was significantly increased compared with the normal controls. The Dual-Luciferase reporter assay system in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells demonstrated that miR-562 and miR-203 were the target miRNAs of IL-22, which was consistent with predictions from bioinformatics software analyses. Interestingly, miR-562 expression in OLP was significantly decreased, but miR-203 expression in OLP was significantly increased compared with the normal controls. This preliminary study for the first time reported that aberrant expression levels of miR-562 and miR-203 were associated with high expression of IL-22 and demonstrated the target relationship between miRNAs and IL-22 in HEK293 cells. Our data indicated that IL-22 and its targeting miRNAs contribute to the pathogenesis of OLP. Further studies are required to investigate the regulatory pathways of IL-22 and miR-562 and miR-203 in OLP. 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The human eye aberrations are important for visual acuity and ophthalmic diagnostics and surgical procedures. Reported monochromatic aberration data of the normal 20/20 human eyes are scarce. There exist even fewer reports of the relation between ametropic conditions and aberrations. We theoretically investigate the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of human eyes for refractive errors of -10 to +10 diopters. Schematic human eye models are employed using optical design software for axial, index, and refractive types of ametropia.
model and ray tracing software ( Zemax ) to understand how much aberrations are in the system and how much can be compensated by the DM. Subsequently...aberration. Table 2 shows the Zemax simulation on this particular case. With aberration compensation, the finest resolvable group is at 252 nm
To investigate the rapid alterations in value and fluctuation of ocular wavefront aberrations during the interblink interval. Forty-two volunteers were examined with a WASCA Wavefront Analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG) using modified software. For each subject, 150 images (about 6 frames/second) were registered during an interblink period. The outcome measures were spherical and cylindrical refraction and root-mean-square (RMS) values for spherical, coma, and total higher order aberrations. Fifth order polynomials were fitted to the data and the fluctuation trends of the parameters were determined. We calculated the prevalence of the trends with an early local minimum (type 1). The tear production status (Schirmer test) and tear film break-up time (BUT) were also measured. Fluctuation trends with an early minimum (type 1) were significantly more frequent than trends with an early local maximum (type 2) for total higher order aberrations RMS (P=.036). The incidence of type 1 fluctuation trends was significantly greater for coma and total higher order aberrations RMS (P=.041 and P=.003, respectively) in subjects with normal results in the BUT or Schirmer test than in those with abnormal results. In the normal subjects, the first minimum of type 1 RMS fluctuation trends occurred, on average, between 3.8 and 5.1 seconds after blink. We suggest that wavefront aberrations can be measured most accurately at the time after blink when they exhibit a decreased degree of dispersion. We recommend that a snapshot of wavefront measurements be made 3 to 5 seconds after blink.